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Environ Anal Health Toxicol > Volume 38:2023 > Article
Environmental Analysis Health and Toxicology 2023;38(3):e2023016-0. doi: https://doi.org/10.5620/eaht.2023016
Seasonal and diurnal measurement of ambient benzene at a high traffic inflation site in Delhi: Health risk assessment and its possible role in ozone formation pathways
Poonam Kumari1,2, Daya Soni1,2 , Shankar G. Aggarwal1,2, Khem Singh1
1CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi, India
2Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), Ghaziabad, India
Corresponding Author: Daya Soni ,Email: dsoni@nplindia.org
Received: May 7, 2023;  Accepted: July 13, 2023.
ABSTRACT
Benzene is the most toxic and hazardous pollutant among volatile organic compounds (VOCs), as it comes under group 1 carcinogens recognized by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). It also plays a significant role in forming secondary pollutants like ozone. The benzene concentration was measured using a charcoal sorbent tube by active sampling at a traffic junction and analysis was done using GC-FID. The maximum average concentration of benzene in ambient air was found to be 33 μg/m3. A diurnal study of benzene measurement shows higher benzene concentrations in the evening compared to the morning. Seasonal variation of benzene is found to be winter > spring > summer > autumn > monsoon and OFP was found to be 21, 19, 14, 13, and 10 respectively. Cancer (ILCR) and non-cancer (HQ) health risk assessment was done to determine the impact of ambient benzene on the residents of urban areas. The yearly average value of ILCR was found to be 2×10-6 ± 1×10-6 which ranges from acceptable value to three times the WHO acceptable value i.e 1×10-6. The correlation of ozone and its precursor, benzene with meteorological parameters is also evaluated. The correlation of benzene and ozone with solar radiation shows the influence of photochemical reactions on the levels of benzene and ozone at the study site, although it is low.
Keywords: Benzene, GC-FID, risk assessment, ozone formation potential, meteorological parameter
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