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Environ Anal Health Toxicol > Volume 39:2024 > Article
Environmental Analysis Health and Toxicology 2024;39(2):e2024020-0. doi: https://doi.org/10.5620/eaht.2024020
Health effects of microplastics and nanoplastics: review of published case reports
Oche Joseph Otorkpa1 , Chinenye Oche Otorkpa2
1Department of Public Health, School of Public Health, Texila American University, Georgetown, Guyana
2Department of Physiology, College of Health Sciences, Federal University, Lokoja, Nigeria
Corresponding Author: Oche Joseph Otorkpa ,Email: drochejoseph@gmail.com
Received: April 12, 2024;  Accepted: June 9, 2024.
ABSTRACT
Microplastics and nanoplastics (MNPs) represent a pervasive environmental pollutant, raising significant concerns about potential health effects on humans. These tiny plastic particles have been detected across various environmental matrices, including air, water, soil, and food sources. While the adverse impacts of MNPs on wildlife and ecosystems are well-documented, understanding their effects on human health is still in its infancy. This study aims to comprehensively review existing case reports documenting adverse health outcomes associated with MNPs exposure. Through an extensive literature search, relevant articles were identified and analyzed. MNPs exposure primarily occurs through ingestion and inhalation routes. Health effects on the digestive system include oxidative stress, inflammation, dysbiosis, and metabolic disorders, with cases linking MNPs exposure to gastrointestinal injury and liver dysfunction. Respiratory system impacts include asthma exacerbation and hypersensitivity pneumonitis, particularly in industries involving plastic production. MNPs exposure has also been associated with nervous system conditions, reproductive toxicity, skeletal system interference, excretory system disruption, and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Despite limited case reports, the widespread presence of MNPs warrants further investigation into their potential health risks. This study underscores the urgency of understanding and mitigating the adverse health effects posed by MNPs exposure. Further research is imperative in order to comprehensively assess and address the dangers associated with MNPs contamination in the environment.
Keywords: microplastics, nanoplastics, toxicity, exposure, health effects
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