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Environ Anal Health Toxicol > Volume 37:2022 > Article
Environmental Analysis Health and Toxicology 2022;37(4):e2022027-0. doi: https://doi.org/10.5620/eaht.2022027
Andrographis paniculata protects against brain hippocampus and cerebellum from mercury chloride induced damage by attenuating oxidative stress
Eduitem Sunday Otong1 , Wusa Makena2 , Abel Yashim Solomon3 , Sebastine Anthony Bazabang4 , Aisha Aminu5 , Rachael Henry4
1Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medical Sciences, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria
2Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medical Sciences, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria
3Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Nile University of Nigeria, Abuja, Nigeria
4Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medical Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria
5Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medical Sciences, Kaduna State University, Kaduna, Nigeria
Corresponding Author: Wusa Makena ,Email: wusamakena@gmail.com
Received: May 11, 2022;  Accepted: September 24, 2022.
ABSTRACT
Mercury chloride (HgCl2) is a neurotoxicant that remains a health hazard despite numerous efforts to reduce its levels in the environment. The use of medicinal plants in treating various diseases and other toxic agents has grown popular owing to their effectiveness and affordable rates. Andrographis paniculata (A. paniculata) is a plant with astringent and detoxifying characteristics and is widely used worldwide for its medicinal and antioxidant benefits. This study aimed to investigate the possible protective effects of A. paniculata aqueous extract against HgCl2-induced memory impairment, oxidative stress, and brain damage. Twenty-five adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: control, HgCl2 0.5 mg/kg, HgCl2+AP 250 mg/kg, HgCl2+AP 500 mg/kg, or HgCl2+Ascorbic acid 200 mg/kg. For 28 days, administrations were given through oral gavage once a day. HgCl2 injection resulted in memory impairment, increased glutamate concentrations in the brain, and the production of oxidative stress. Memory impairment was prevented in A. paniculata-treated groups by balancing the levels of AChE and dopamine activities, which then lowered glutamate concentration, avoided oxidative stress, and improved histopathological alterations in the brain. A. paniculata alleviated HgCl2-induced memory impairment in Wistar rats by increasing the memory index, regulating neurotransmitter levels, and reducing oxidative stress.
Keywords: mercury chloride, Andrographis paniculate, glutamate, dopamine, acetylcholinesterase
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