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Environ Anal Health Toxicol > Volume 37:2022 > Article
Environmental Analysis Health and Toxicology 2022;37(2):e2022016-0. doi: https://doi.org/10.5620/eaht.2022016
Deterministic and probabilistic human health risk assessment for fluorides in drinking groundwater from Lukavac, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Maida Šljivić Husejnović1 , Almina Turkić1 , Arnela Halilčević1 , Nermina Hadžić2 , Halida Mahmutbegović3
1Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Tuzla, Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina
2Pharmacy Mediflor, Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina
3Pharmacy Ibn Sina, Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Corresponding Author: Maida Šljivić Husejnović ,Email: maida.sljivic-husejnovic@unitz.com
Received: February 23, 2022;  Accepted: June 10, 2022.
ABSTRACT
Although fluorides are essential for dental health, there are growing health concerns regarding the risk-benefit ratio of fluoride exposure. The objectives of the study were to obtain data on the amount and human health risks of fluoride in drinking groundwater, as well as to compare and evaluate the differences in the outputs obtained by two different approaches in health risk assessment (deterministic vs probabilistic). From a densely populated industrial area of north-eastern Bosnia and Herzegovina, a total of 54 groundwater samples were collected. Fluoride concentrations varied from 1.69 to 3.52 mg/L. The WHO's threshold value for fluoride in drinking water was exceeded in all the samples analysed, indicating an increased daily intake of fluoride from groundwater. Deterministic and semi-probabilistic techniques were used for exposure assessment and health risk quantification. Generally, the deterministic approach resulted in acceptable health risks in most adult exposure scenarios. However, the Monte Carlo simulation revealed that 20.6, 20.8, and 99.8% of adult males, females, and children, respectively, were above the tolerable upper intake level, indicating that both adults and children face a significant health risk. Nevertheless, small children are more vulnerable to environmental hazards than youth and adults. Hence, a more in-depth risk-benefit analysis is required to reduce/or optimize fluoride content in drinking water to prevent tooth decay and fluorosis at all ages. Considering that optimal daily intake of fluorides is a crucial factor for preserving human health, decision-makers should take steps to emphasize the importance of continuous monitoring of fluoride concentrations in drinking water.
Keywords: fluoride, drinking water, Monte Carlo simulations, deterministic health risk assessment, water safety
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