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Environ Anal Health Toxicol > Volume 34:2019 > Article
Environmental Analysis Health and Toxicology 2019;34(3):e2019010-0. doi: https://doi.org/10.5620/eht.e2019010
Experimental modeling of the acute toxicity and cytogenotoxic fate of composite mixtures of chromate, copper and arsenate oxides associated with CCA preservative using Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822)
Olukunle S. Fagbenro1, Chibuisi G. Alimba1,2 , Adekunle A. Bakare1
1Cell Biology and Genetics Unit, Department of Zoology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria, Germany
2Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors (IfADo), Technical University of Dortmund, 44139 Dortmund, Germany
Corresponding Author: Chibuisi G. Alimba ,Email: cg.alimba@ui.edu.ng, chivoptera@yahoo.com
Received: May 14, 2019;  Accepted: September 19, 2019.
ABSTRACT
Concurrent occurrence of chromium (Cr), copper (Cu) and arsenic (As) from chromated copper arsenate (CCA) wood preservative in aquatic ecosystems demands that their joint-actions in eliciting toxic effects be assessed for adequate understanding of the health risk they may pose to biota. Clarias gariepinus was exposed to As2O3 , CrO3 and CuO and their composite mixtures (1:1 and 1:1:1) at various concentrations (0 – 600 mg/L) for 96-h to determine the acute toxicity using OECD (1992) protocol. C. gariepinus was then exposed to sub-lethal concentrations corresponding to 6.25, 12.5, 25.0, 50.0 and 100% of the 96-h LC50 for 7 days to assess the cytogenotoxic effects using piscine micronucleus (MN) test. The 96-h LC50 showed that the metals/metalloid demonstrated differential interactions in a concentration dependent pattern. The 96-h LC50 showed that Cr was the most toxic while Cu and As:Cu were indeterminate (Cr > Cr:Cu > As:Cr > As > As:Cr:Cu > Cu = As:Cu indeterminate). Isobologram and synergistic ratio (SR) models predicted antagonistic interaction between Cu:Cr and As:Cr and synergism between As:Cu in the causation of morbidity and mortality of C. gariepinus. Interaction factor model predicted antagonism as common interactive mechanism among the metal/metalloid mixtures in the induction of MN and abnormal nuclear erythrocytes in C. gariepinus. Predicted interactions among the three metals/ metalloid were largely antagonism and synergism towards the induction of acute toxicity and cytogenotoxicity. The models employed herein may be useful in establishing environmental safe limits for mixtures of metals/metalloids against the induction of acute toxicity and DNA damage in lower aquatic vertebrates.
Keywords: Acute toxicity, antagonistic and synergistic interactions, Clarias gariepinus, joint-action toxicity models, metal mixtures, micronucleus test
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