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Environ Anal Health Toxicol > Volume 36:2021 > Article
Environmental Analysis Health and Toxicology 2021;36(4):e2021025-0. doi: https://doi.org/10.5620/eaht.2021025
Particulate matter exposure and non-cancerous inhalation health risk assessment of major dumpsites of Owerri metropolis, Nigeria
Alexander Iheanyichukwu Opara1 , Casmir Zanders Akaolisa1, Chigozie Osita Akakuru1 , Amarachi Udoka Nkwoada2 , Francis Chizoruo Ibe3 , Andrew Wirnkor Verla3 , Ikechukwu Chigozie Chukwuemeka1
1Department of Geology, Federal University of Technology, PMB 1526 Owerri, Nigeria
2Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology, PMB 1526 Owerri, Nigeria
3Department of Chemistry, Imo State University, PMB 2000 Owerri, Nigeria
Corresponding Author: Amarachi Udoka Nkwoada ,Email: amarachi.nkwoada@futo.edu.ng
Received: July 28, 2021;  Accepted: October 14, 2021.
ABSTRACT
Numerous particulates are released from the dumpsites in Owerri metropolis and later dispersed to other areas in the environment where they cause adverse health challenges to the inhabitants. To analyze the PM concentrations, field measurements were carried out at seven major dumpsites in Owerri metropolis. Estimates of the possible health risks as the result of exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM2.5, PM10, etc.) were performed using the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) human health risk assessment framework. A scenario assessment approach in which normal exposure and worst-case scenario were adopted for acute and chronic exposure periods for infants, children, and adults were carried out. The concentrations of PM 2.5 which ranged from 122.30-501.76 μg/m3 at the dumpsites exceeded the WHO 24hr annual mean maximum exposure limit. The Nigerian National Ambient Air Quality Standard allowable limit for PM10 was exceeded by most of the dumpsites. Hazard quotient > 1 was exceeded for PM 2.5 by nearly all dumpsites and is therefore likely to cause health challenges to people in the vicinity of the dumpsites. The results showed that under monthly conditions, both PM2.5 and PM10 concentration levels at the dumpsites have the potential to cause adverse health effects for infants, children, and adults on acute or chronic bases. Actions should be taken to regulate such PM exposure and to raise public awareness for the inhabitants of the affected areas. In conclusion, regular monitoring is therefore recommended to decrease the ambient particulate matter (PM) concentrations in the study area.
Keywords: Risk assessment, Particulate matter, Dumpsite, Fine particle, Coarse particle, Particle distribution
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