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Environ Anal Health Toxicol > Volume 36:2021 > Article
Environmental Analysis Health and Toxicology 2021;36(4):e2021023-0. doi: https://doi.org/10.5620/eaht.2021023
Pollution investigation and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil and water from selected dumpsite locations in rivers and Bayelsa State, Nigeria
Victor Uchenna Okechukwu1 , Daniel Omeodisemi Omokpariola1 , Valentine Ifenna Onwukeme1, Eucheria Nkiru Nweke1,2 , Patrick Leonard Omokpariola3
1Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria
2Department of Chemistry, College of Education, Umunze, Nigeria
3Directorate of Chemical Evaluation and Research, National Agency for Food and Drug, Administration and Control, Isolo, Nigeria
Corresponding Author: Daniel Omeodisemi Omokpariola ,Email: omeodisemi@gmail.com
Received: August 2, 2021;  Accepted: September 27, 2021.
ABSTRACT
The transfer ratio of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from soil dumpsite to borehole water is dependent of polluting source and exposure matrices that causes immerse health risk to man and environment over a period of time. PAHs were assessed in selected soil dumpsite and borehole water located at Rivers state (Eleme, Eliozu, Eneka, Oyigbo, and Woji) and Bayelsa state (Yenagoa), Nigeria. Soil samples were collected at four different points 30 m (North, South, East and West) locations at a depth of 15 cm for each dumpsite using soil auger while control samples were collected 200 m away (farmland), where there were little anthropogenic activities and no presence of active dumpsites. Borehole water samples were collected from 300 m distance, which were packaged in an amber container, labeled, and transported to the laboratory for analysis. Standard analytical methods were employed. PAHs concentrations were analyzed using gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after extraction of water and soil using liquid-liquid and soxhlet extraction methods respectively and clean-up of the extracts, thereafter the laboratory data generated were subjected to statistical analysis. Total PAHs (ΣPAHS) concentrations in soil samples from the study sites ranged from 2.4294 mg/kg in Yenagoa to 5.1662 mg/kg in Eleme while in water samples the total PAHs ranged from 1.3935 mg/L in Woji to 3.009 mg/L in Eleme. The total PAH concentrations in the soil were above the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry levels of 1.0 mg/kg for a considerably contaminated site except for the control sites. The total concentration of carcinogenic PAHs ranged from 0.0038 to 1.1301mg/kg in soil samples and 0.0014 to 0.9429 mg/L in borehole water samples, therefore raising concern of human exposure via food chain. The results indicate that low molecular weight PAHs were more dominant than high molecular weight PAHs in both soil and water samples, however molecular diagnostic ratio shows that pyrogenic activities are major sources of PAHs as compared to petrogenic origin. Multivariate analysis (principal component analysis and Pearson correlation) showed strong negative correlation implying that they were from dissimilar sources and different migratory route. Cancer and non-cancer risk showed that children were more at risk compared to adults, where inhalation exposure were major contribution as compared to ingestion and dermal exposure, as such there is a need to implement regulatory laws on indiscriminate release of PAHs contaminants to maintain sustainability.
Keywords: PAHs contaminants, Soil dumpsite, Molecular diagnostic ratio, Cancer risk, Hazard index, Southern Nigeria
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